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Immunization

Immunization is a process whereby a child is made immune or resistant to infectious diseases by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the body’s own immune system to protect the child against subsequent infection or disease.

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Routine vaccination is now provided in all developing countries against tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and measles. In industrialized countries, a wider protection is provided against mumps (combined with measles and rubella) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in addition to the routine vaccines with the inclusion of vaccines. . The WHO recommended vaccination schedule right from birth, as followed in most developing countries is given in Table 1.1 

Table 1: Immunization Schedule of Developing Countries

   Vaccine
Age
 
Birth
6 weeks
10 weeks
14 weeks
9–12 months
Primary Vaccination
 BCG
X
 
 
 
 
 OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine)
X
    X
      X
     X
 
 DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus)
 
    X
      X
     X
 
 Hepatitis B
 
    X
      X
     X
 
 Measles
 
 
 
 
        X
Booster Doses
DPT + OPV
16–24 months
DT
5 years
Tetanus toxoid (TT)
10 years and at 16 years
Vitamin A
9, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months
 

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Written by: Healthplus24 team
Date last updated
: December 30,2008