Polio or poliomyelitis is a major disease that can lead to loss of movement or complete paralysis. Poliovirus enters through the mouth and the infection spreads to the throat and the intestine.
Polio vaccine is an immunity measure against polio. It all started in the year 1955 after infamous polio epidemic in the US. Although polio has been eradicated completely in the US, it’s still occurs in developing and underdeveloped countries.
Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV): It is prepared with inactivated (dead) form of the virus incapable of causing polio. The vaccine induces antibodies in the bloodstream and prevents paralysis. The injection is given in the arm or leg.
Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV): Three different serotypes of polio virus were used to prepare the vaccine. This form is also known as “live attenuated virus” was meant to be swallowed by the child. The virus triggered an immune response but didn’t cause the disease. Children who were vaccinated before the year 2000 received oral dose.
So here we shall consider IPV form of the vaccine which is currently been used.
It is mandatory for children.
Following groups of people also need polio vaccine if they haven’t received in childhood:
- Adults who travel frequently to different parts of the world, especially where polio is still prevalent
- People working in healthcare sectors (especially attending polio patients) laboratory and public places
Four doses of IPV vaccine are given to children in a successive pattern.
- Fist dose at 2 months
- Second dose at 4 months
- Third dose at 6-18 months
- A booster dose at 4-6 year
Adults who belong to high risk groups as explained above need to vaccinated with IPV in the following pattern
- First dose anytime
- Second dose after 1-2 months of the first
- Third dose 6-12 months after the second
Polio vaccine is not given to the following group of people:
- Any individual who had developed sever allergy to prior shots of polio vaccine
- Those who are allergic to antibiotics like neomycin, streptomycin or polymyxin B
Children or adults might get a sore spot, i.e. swelling and redness on the site of injection. Slight fever can be felt.
There are no serious health complications with IPV polio vaccine.
Report to your doctor immediately if you notice allergic symptoms.
Written by: healthplus24.com team
Date last updated: February 28, 2014