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Hemorrhoidectomy is a surgical process of removing haemorrhoids from the rectum as they hinder the passage of bowel. Hemorrhoidal tissue can grow inside or outside the anal canal.


Why is hemorrhoidectomy performed?

The surgery is suggested when the haemorrhoids enlarge and swell up, severe enough to cause a disease or a complication. They need to be removed under the following circumstances.

  • Causing excessive strain to pass bowel including rectal bleeding and pain
  • Prolapse of internal haemorrhoids through anus
  • Formation of blood clots (thrombosed) in external haemorrhoids
  • Crowding of internal and external haemorrhoids
  • To treat strangulated haemorrhoids


How is hemorrhoidectomy performed?

There are 2 procedures for hemorrhoidectomy viz closed and open.  

The traditional surgical process involves excisional hemorrhoidectomy. The technique for both closed and open procedure is same i.e. the hemorrhoidal tissue is excised with scalpel or scissors.

In the former, the incision is not closed due to risk factors while in the latter the site is stitched. Closed hemorrhoidectomy is chosen for treating internal hemorrhoids. 

Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is the latest and minimally invasive technology for prolapse of haemorrhoids.  Incision is not made but the hemorrhoidal cushions are pulled back in their original position with the help of special circular stapling device, inserted via rectum.


How to prepare for the surgery?

Your doctor would give you the pre operative instructions regarding your diet, bowel and probable alteration of medicines. 

You will be admitted in the hospital on the day of the surgery.

Hemorrhoidectomy is performed under general anaesthesia, which will include an intravenous medicines and gases. Spinal anaesthesia may also be given.

Discuss with your doctor and nurse if you have any questions.


What happens during the surgery?

Since you will be under anaesthesia, you won’t be experiencing pain.   

Your vital body functions (breathing, heart rate, etc.) will be closely monitored while the operation is on.


What happens after the surgery?

You should be retained overnight in the hospital and the effect of anaesthesia takes at least 24 hours to wear off; so you would be feeling drowsy. Sometimes urination may be difficult immediately after the surgery, but it’s restored after sometime. 

You might be given a local anaesthesia or pain killers to reduce post operative pain.


How long does it take to recover from hemorrhoidectomy?

Depending on the complication you had and surgical procedure, it would take 2-3 weeks at least to recover.


What are the risks associated with hemorrhoidectomy?

The common side effects are anal bleeding, infections and urine retention.

However there are potential complications which could be faecal impaction (trapped hard stool in anus), painful bowel movements, faecal incontinence and narrowing of the anal passage. These problems might show up in the long run, if not immediately.

However, let your doctor know immediately on experiencing any abnormality


Post operative care for hemorrhoidectomy
  • Take sufficient rest for long term health benefits.
  • Plan your diet that would ease your bowels. Eat lots of fibrous fruits, vegetables, grains, etc. and plenty of water.
  • Avoid eating constipation causing foods. You can consider taking warm water compress in your anal area.
  • You can also take laxatives after consulting your doctor.
  • Exercise regularly to improve metabolism


How effective is hemorrhoidectomy?

Doctors say that closed hemorrhoidectomy is 90% effective while open hemorrhoidectomy, although a success carries some possibility of infections.

However, haemorrhoid complications can recur. Recovery and success of the surgery depends a large extent on how well a person is following the post operative care instructions.

Written by: healthplus24.com team
Date last updated: March 04, 2014

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