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Refractive Eye Disorders

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Are you experiencing trouble in seeing close-by or far objects; as in they are appearing blurry? Well, then most probably your eyes have a refractive disorder. So what is refractive disorder of eyes? We explain you over here...


What is refractive eye disorder?

It is a kind of vision problem occurring from the inability of your eyes to focus properly. This happens when due improper shape of your eyeball i.e. when it is longer or shorter than normal.


Different types of refractive eye disorders

Myopia - near-sightedness

It occurs when your eyeball is too long. As a result light gets focussed in front of the retina instead of on the retina. The person will face difficulty in seeing distant objects.

Symptoms: Mostly occurs in children but adults can also have blurred vision for far objects. Reading letters in the blackboard, difficulty in driving are common symptoms of myopia. Squinting of becomes a habit.

In children, nearsightedness frequently increases until children stop growing.

Hyperopia – farsightedness

Just the opposite of myopia, hyperopia occurs when your eyeball is short. Quite certainly the light gets focussed behind the retina. Due to this refractive error, nearby objects look blurry

Symptoms: Eye strain due adjusting eyes to read a book, watch TV, etc. Headache and watery eyes are very obvious.

Astigmatism-distorted vision at all distances

In this case, the corneal shape is more curved with some steep portions. The light rays are not focussed properly and gets reflected differently depending upon where exactly it strikes on the retina. Objects appear blurry and stretched out.

Symptoms: Squinting of eyes, headache and eye strain, distorted and blurred vision, difficulty to drive at night

Presbyopia- age related refractive error

Your lens gradually starts hardening due to which the light doesn’t get focussed directly on to the retina. The muscle fibres around the lens are also affected due to age, which affect their focussing ability. Objects near to the eyes appear blurry.

Symptoms: Eye strain is most likely to occur and they have a hard time reading small letters or doing tasks that require like vision like threading the needle.

Risk factors for developing refractive eye disorders

  • Family history – Parents who have any type of refractive error
  • Myopia is detected in pre-schoolers and teenagers
  • Advancing age - presbyopia occurs in adults over age 35


Diagnosis of refractive eye disorders

our doctor can figure out refractive errors very easily from the vision chart that you will be asked to read. An assortment of lenses would be given to you while testing your eyes to maximize your vision.  A comprehensive dilated eye exam involving dilationtonometryvisual field test and visual acuity test might also be performed for better analysis of the eyes., 


Treatment of refractive eye disorders

Eye glasses and lens- Your eye doctor will prescribe appropriate lenses to correct your refractive error and provide you a clear vision. You have to wear them constantly. Additionally, eye drops would also be given to manage eye strain.

Refractive eye surgeries- If the error is to high, then your eye specialist might opt for correcting it through surgery. Different approaches for changing the curvature of the cornea include LASIK (Laser-Assisted In-Situ Keratomileusis ) LASEK (or Epi-LASIK) and Photo Refractive Keratotomy (PRK). Another approach entails replacing the natural lens with an artificial lens.

Written by: healthplus24.com team
Date last updated: june 06, 2014

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