Colour blindness is the inability to differentiate between red, green or blue or a combination of these colours. It is also synonymous as colour vision problem (CVP).
What’s the science behind colour blindness?
The retina is made up of rods and cones. Cones are located in the centre of the retina or the macula, help in perceiving colour during daytime. There are three broad categories of cones- red, green and blue which provide eye’s colour sensitivity because they contain light sensitive pigments (trichromasy) within the visible spectrum. The biochemical process of colour perception is complex and a defect in the cones or absence of pigment leads to colour blindness of varied proportion.
Types of Colour Blindness and their symptoms
Anomalous Trichromacy: Most common form of colour blindness in which one of the cone cells i.e. red, blue or green are altered. It’s of 3 types
- Protanomaly: It is known as "red-weakness" i.e. absence of red cone cells. The individual faces difficulty in distinguishing red, orange, and yellow region of the spectrum
- Deuteranomaly- Referred to as ”green weakness” or absence of green cone cells. They cannot perceive difference between red, orange, yellow, and green and blue-green.
- Tritanomaly: It is a rare form of colour blindness characterized by decreased sensitivity of blue cones
- Protanopia: unable to spot red colour, difficulty to spot green, combination of blue and green appears gray
- Deuteranopia: unable to spot green colour, cannot spot combination of red and green.
- Tritanopia: absence of blue cone cells, cannot distinguish between yellow and blue colour
What causes colour blindness?
- Eye complications like macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, etc.
- Injury or accidental damage of retina
- Side effects of tuberculosis drugs, blood pressure medicines, nervous problems medicines, antibiotics, etc.
- Exposure chemicals and gases like lead, carbon monoxide, etc.
- People above 60 years might lose colour perception ability
Treatment for colour blindness
There are several day-to-day strategies laid out at eye clinics for colour blind people. We suggest you to help your loved ones to understand them properly and ease their lifestyle.
Written by: healthplus24.com team
Date last updated: February 25, 2014