Type 1 Diabetes mellitus
Type 1 DM(T1DM) is an autoimmune disease which results when the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas.1 As a consequence, the pancreas produces little or no insulin. It is still unknown what exactly causes this attack to the beta-cells but, the autoimmune, genetic and environmental factors including exposure to certain viruses may be involved.1
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus
Type 2 DM (T2DM), previously defined as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is the most common form, affecting 90–95% of all individuals who develop DM.2 The etiology of T2DM is multifactorial. It is most often associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, previous history of gestational diabetes, sedentary lifestyle and certain ethnicities. Nevertheless, this type is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents lately.
Gestational Diabetes mellitus
Gestational DM (GDM) refers to carbohydrate intolerance that develops during the 24th to 32nd week of pregnancy in women who had not been previously diagnosed with diabetes. Gestational diabetes is caused by the hormones of pregnancy or a shortage of insulin. Women with GDM may not experience any symptoms.
Anumber of complications are associated with GDM including the risk of preeclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage (excessive bleeding after delivery), higher rates of perinatal mortality, macrosomia (big baby) and neonatal hypoglycemia (low blood glucose).5
Other Specific Types
This type refers to other forms of diabetes of various known etiologies. It includes patients with genetic defects of beta-cell function (formerly called MODY or maturity-onset diabetes in youth) or with defects of insulin action, patients with diseases of the pancreas such as pancreatitis or cystic fibrosis, patients with dysfunction associated with other endocrinopathies (disorders in the function of endocrine glands and the consequences thereof) and patients with pancreatic dysfunction caused by infections, drugs and chemicals.
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Written by: Healthplus24 team
Date last updated: July 27, 2012