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Comprehensive Information about Diabetes Insipidus

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The condition in which a person experiences abnormal increase in urine is known as Diabetes Insipidus (DI). According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), diabetes insipidus is a complex health disorder that is characterized by the frequent urination, and pronounced thirst. As patient experiences frequent urination, therefore, in order to compensate for lost water, a person feels thirsty and drinks water in greater volume which eventually results in repeated urination. Basically, there are four types of Diabetes Insipidus -Central DI, Nephrogenic DI, Dipsogenic DI and Gestational DI. This piece of information covers some of the vital facts related to DI.

Causes of Diabetes Insipidus

The kidneys perform function of filtering blood, therefore when they are unable to conserve water, then resulting situation is termed as DI. Water is conserved and controlled by vasopressin, also termed as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is a hormone produced in hypothalamus, a region of the brain.

Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus

Basically, excessive thirst and frequent urination are considered as the most important symptoms of DI. Excessive thirst may involve yearning for ice water or thirst may be intense or uncontrollable at a certain point of time.

Diagnosis and Tests for depicting DI

Usually, health professionals perform a series of tests in order to diagnose Diabetes Insipidus. The tests which are performed by professionals on patients are assorted below:

  • Urine Sugar Test
  • Urinalysis
  • MRI of the brain
  • Fluid Deprivation Test

Treatments for curing Diabetes Insipidus

Treatment of DI can be carried out quite successfully, if doctors can identify the exact of kind of DI, the patient is suffering. For instance, Central DI may be controlled and treated with Vasopressin (Desmopressin, DDVAP). Vasopressin can be taken either in nasal spray form or in tablets form. Similarly, lithium-induced Nephrogenic DI and hereditary Nephrogenic DI can be treated by drinking plenty of fluids. Drugs like Indomethacin (Anti-inflammatory medication) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and Amiloride (diuretics) are also used for treating Nephrogenic DI.

Diabetes Insipidus treatment involves medical as well as surgical care also. In the case of emergency, patients can drink plenty of fluid to compensate with urine losses. In the case of inadequate thirst, Desmopressin drug can be administered 2-3 times in a day. Some professionals also recommend pharmaceutical therapy for patients suffering from DI.

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As recommended by professionals, surgical care also involves regular dosage of drug after operation. For instance, after pituitary surgery, it is mandatory to administer parenteral Desmopressin in every 12 to 24 hours. In addition to this, gulping adequate fluids to match water lost from the body is another requisite condition that is necessary to follow.

Needless to say, balanced diet contributes significantly in treating DI quickly. According to Mayo Clinic, adequate and balanced intake of salt and water is one dietary consideration that patients must watch over.

Possible Complications

Although, Diabetes Insipidus does not result in reducing life expectancy or causing any severe problem, not guzzling adequate fluids may lead to some complications. Some of the complications are described below:

  • Dehydration
  • Electrolyte Imbalance
  • Lethargy, Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Headache, muscle pains
  • Rapid heart rate.

Hence, it is advised to seek medical assistance immediately in the case you are facing such kinds of complications or symptoms, mentioned above.

Summary- Diabetes Insipidus is a disorder that results in frequent urination. A person can suffer from four types of DI. A number of tests are performed by health professionals to diagnose the condition. Numerous drugs, medical, surgical care, etc are recommended by professionals to cure the disease effectively.

Written by: Saptakee sengupta
Date last updated: April 12, 2015

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